Explicit Material \/\/TOP\\\\
The recent advancement of internet-enabled technologies in African countries has significantly changed the way adolescents/young people encounter and consume sexually explicit materials (3). Safer sex is largely absent in sexually explicit materials. As content analysis of such materials had demonstrated, actors used condoms in only 3% of scenes depicting penile-vaginal intercourse and in only 10% of scenes depicting penile-anal intercourse (1).
Because they are not well mature psychologically, the younger generation faces challenges in selecting positive messages they may get from such media, and they are easily influenced by them. Longitudinal research findings have demonstrated that sexually explicit material (SEM) exposure affects adolescents' sexual attitudes as well as the initiation of sexual behavior. It has also confirmed that adolescents who visit sexually explicit websites were found to have more permissive attitudes toward sexual activity compared with those who have never been exposed. Similarly, frequent consumer of SE materials had permissive attitude towards extra marital sex (2,4,5,6).
Frequent consumption of pornography is associated with many behaviors and attitudes usually regarded as the characteristics of at risk youth. For instance, a study conducted in USA among school adolescents revealed that frequent exposure to sexual content on television predicts early pregnancy (5,7). A cross-sectional study conducted among high school adolescents in eastern part of Ethiopia also indicated that adolescents who were exposed to SE movies were 2 times more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior compared to those who were never exposed ( 95% CI: 1.12, 3.44) (8). Frequency of internet use for accessing sexual materials was found to be a predictor of being sexually active and of the likelihood of having multiple sexual partners (9).
The other problems related to exposure to sexually explicit material is its association with many risky sexual behaviors like non-condom use (non-consistent condom use), multiple sexual partner, alcohol use during sexual activity and sexual debut at early age (6).
Generally, many studies indicated that sexually explicit material exposure is one of the factors for risky sexual behavior. However, almost all of the studies conducted on this area were from western and other Asian countries, and no studies were conducted on the association between exposure to SE material, and each specific risky sexual behavior. Thus, this study intends to fill this gap.
The other significance of this study was university life is definitely different from pre-university life for students. In university, the students are out of family control/super vision, and they can be highly influenced by peers. Therefore, this may create conducive environment for them to watch SE materials. Additionally, the availability of free internet (Wi-Fi or cable based) services in university also facilitate consumption of what they desire to access. Thus, the nature of the university students' life mandates to conduct this study. We hope the university youth are the front line beneficiary of this research.
Therefore, the overall objective of this study was to assess exposure to sexually explicit electronic materials and its association with sexual behaviors of Ambo University undergraduate students, 2018.
The sample size for the first specific objective was calculated with the fallowing factors assumed: level of confidence was 95%, (Zα/2) = 1.96, marginal error (d) =0.05; since we could not obtain a similar study finding on the magnitude of sexually explicit electronic material in Ethiopia, we assumed single population proportion of (p=0.05) to get the possible maximum sample size. In addition, since the issue under investigation is sensitive, 5% non-respondense rate was added. By adding the 5% non-response rate, the total sample size was 403.
Data collection tools: For data collection, structured questionnaire was prepared based on the reviewed literature and extracting from related studies. The questionnaire was first prepared in English language and then translated into the two common local languages in Ethiopia (Amharaic and Afan Oromo) by two different language experts in the Department of English language and Journalism of Ambo University. Then, the questionnaire was translated back into English by another person of the same department to check its consistent in meaning with first version. The questionnaire contains socio-demographic characteristics of the students, history of exposure to sexually explicit materials, sexual behaviors of the students and other related backgrounds.
Study variables: The outcome variable for this study was exposure to sexually explicit electronic materials. Socio-economic and demographic characteristics such as sex, age, duration of stay in the university, ethnic group, religious group, parents' educational status, income of parents, open discussion on sexual issues with a family member were the independent variables.
Sexually explicit electronic materials - refer to any video type electronic materials that typically intend to arouse the viewer and depict sexual activities and (arouses) genitals in unconcealed ways, usually with close-ups on oral, anal, and vaginal penetration; could be online or offline accessible types (12).
Out of SE electronic material exposed university students, about 37.7% claimed that searching for sexual information was their top reason. This is a significant number and supports the published study conducted among preparatory students in Hawassa, SNNP of Ethiopia (14).
The information which is portrayed on the sexually explicit electronic materials may forward some positive information for observers. However, due to the fact that the majority of the University students are not well matured enough psychologically and physically too, they are easily influenced and face challenges in selecting only the positive information. Due to this, information from SE materials is potentially harmful. Our finding from logistic regression analysis indicated that exposure to SE electronic material is associated with non-condom use and alcohol use during sexual intercourse. As logistic regression revealed, those who watched SE electronic material were 2 times more likely not to use (non-consistently use) condom during sex. Alcohol consumption is a known risky sexual behavior which puts the students at risk for acquiring STI, HIV/AIDS and/or unwanted pregnancy along with its consequences. Alcohol use during sex increases the probability of irresponsible sex specifically not using condom (4,17).
The factors associated with SE electronic material exposure were assessed using multiple logistic regressions by controlling for confounders. Accordingly, sexually active students were nearly 2 times more likely to be exposed to SE electronic materials [95% CI: AOR=1.95 (1.15, 3.32)]. A finding from Nigeria also indicated that frequent exposure to SE material predicts sexual activity and multiple sexual partners, which supports our finding. This is for the fact that the majority of university students lack sufficient awareness about sex and sexual life. For this reason, when they become sexually active, they start to search for information about sex. The other finding of this study, i.e. about 37.7% of SE electronic material exposed university students claimed that they watched for searching about sex information could also substantiate this finding (13,18,8).
Overall, males were more likely to be exposed to SE electronic materials compared to female [95% CI: AOR=2.2 (1.28, 3.77)]. This is similar with the finding from Hawassa, Ethiopia, and the study in Italy among grade 12 and vocational students (2,14,19). Even though we could not get scientifically proved reason for the difference in exposure status between males and females, we believe that the difference is due to sociocultural influences. In Ethiopia, it is a taboo for a female to clearly engage in such behaviors, and even if they engage they are less likely to report it as they know it is taboo.
Ambo University should work on filling gaps related to sexual and reproductive health related information. To do this, we highly recommend that there should be continuous awareness creation for students on the area of sexual health, safe sex, STI and HIV related issue. Such intervention should give priority to sexually active students. University students should get guidance on the potential harmful effects of sexually explicit material, and on how to capture only positive information if done so.
Multivariable Logistic Regressions analysis on association between SE electronic materials exposure and Sexual behaviors, and Factors associated with it among Ambo University Undergraduate students, 2018
A. It is unlawful for any person knowingly to place explicit sexual material upon public display, or knowingly to fail to take prompt action to remove such a display from property in his possession or under his control after learning of its existence.
1. "Explicit sexual material" means any drawing, photograph, film negative, motion picture, figure, object, novelty device, recording, transcription or any book, leaflet, pamphlet, magazine, booklet or other item, the cover or contents of which depicts human genitalia or depicts or verbally describes nudity, sexual activity, sexual conduct, sexual excitement or sadomasochistic abuse in a way which is harmful to minors. Explicit sexual material does not include any depiction or description which, taken in context, possesses serious educational value for minors or which possesses serious literary, artistic, political or scientific value.
2. "Public display" means the placing of material on or in a billboard, viewing screen, theater marquee, newsstand, display rack, vending machine, window, showcase, display case or similar place so that material within the definition of paragraph 1 of this subsection is easily visible or readily accessible from a public thoroughfare, from the property of others, or in any place where minors are invited as part of the general public. 041b061a72