Alternate Text: The figure above shows the average percentage of legionellosis cases occurring in the United States annually, by month and U.S. Census region during 2000-2009. Cases tended to occur in the summer and early fall, with the June-October period accounting for 62% of the cases reported each year.
The decade 2000-2009 was the warmest since modern recordkeeping began, and 2009 was tied for the second warmest single year, a new analysis of global surface temperature shows. The analysis, conducted each year by the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), an affiliate of the Earth Institute, also shows that in half the world--the Southern Hemisphere--2009 was the warmest year yet recorded.
I examine the impact of pharmaceutical innovation, as measured by the vintage (world launch year) of prescription drugs used, on longevity using longitudinal, country-level data on 30 developing and high-income countries during the period 2000-2009. I control for fixed country and year effects, real per capita income, the unemployment rate, mean years of schooling, the urbanization rate, real per capita health expenditure (public and private), the DPT immunization rate among children ages 12-23 months, HIV prevalence and tuberculosis incidence.
Hand hygiene represents the single most effective way to prevent healthcare-associated infections. The World Health Organization, as part of its First Global Patient Safety Challenge, recommends implementation of multi-faceted strategies to increase compliance with hand hygiene. A questionnaire was sent by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control to 30 European countries, regarding the availability and organisation of their national hand hygiene campaigns. All countries responded. Thirteen countries had organised at least one national campaign during the period 2000-2009 and three countries were in the process of organising a national campaign. Although the remaining countries did not have a national campaign, several reported regional and local hand hygiene activities or educational resources on national websites.
On July 23, 2010, the National Center for Health Statistics released the Bridged-race Vintage 2009 postcensal population file. The Vintage 2009 bridged-race postcensal population estimates files contain estimates of the resident population of the United States as of July 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008, by county, single-year of age (0, 1, 2,..., 85 years and over), bridged-race category (White, Black or African American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian or Pacific Islander), Hispanic origin (not Hispanic or Latino, Hispanic or Latino), and sex (1). The estimates on this file are based on Census 2000 and result from bridging the Vintage 2008 postcensal estimates with 31 race groups (the 31 race groups used in Census 2000 in accordance with the 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) standards for the collection of data on race and ethnicity) to the four race categories specified under the 1977 OMB standards(2,3).Source of the EstimatesThe Vintage 2009 bridged-race postcensal estimates were produced by the Population Estimates Program of the U.S. Census Bureau in collaboration with the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). This file was released by the Census Bureau on June 20, 2010 and by NCHS on July 23, 2010.Changes in Estimates Methodology Implemented for Vintage 2009The Vintage 2009 postcensal population estimates reflect four major improvements in the estimates methodology: changes in the estimation of net international migration,
changes in the estimation of the distribution of deaths to people aged 70 and older by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin,
changes in the estimation of domestic migration of the population age 65 years and older, and
changes in the estimation of the age distribution of migration to and from counties (4, 5).
Adjustments for Hurricanes Katrina and Rita were accomplished using a different approach than used for Vintage 2006-Vintage 2008 (4, 6).At the national level, the result of the various methodologic changes is an upward shift of the Vintage 2009 postcensal population estimates when compared to those from the Vintage 2008 series.At the State and county level, some race and age groups experienced substantial changes (comparison of July 1, 2008 estimates from the Vintage 2008 series with the July 1, 2008 and July 1, 2009 estimates from the Vintage 2009 series).Vintage 2008 Postcensal Population EstimatesVintage 2008 postcensal population estimates reflect three major improvements in the estimates methodology (7, 8).Improvements include these changes: the estimation of net international migration,
the incorporation of accepted challenges and special censuses into the national population estimates, and
the imputation of the race and Hispanic origin for births. These methodology changes go beyond the extensive methodology changes implemented for the Vintage 2007 estimates (9).The net impact of the various methodologic changes is a downward shift of the Vintage 2008 postcensal population estimates when compared to those from the Vintage 2007 series; the Vintage 2007 postcensal estimates also reflected a downward shift when compared to the 2006 estimates.Hurricanes Katrina and Rita Impact on Vintage 2006-Vintage 2009 EstimatesFor Vintage 2006-Vintage 2008, the Census Bureau adjusted the population estimates for Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi and Texas (for 2006 and later) to accommodate geographic shifts in the populations that resulted from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005 (10, 11, 12)These adjustments were not used for the Vintage 2009 estimates because the updated methodology and data used to produce the Vintage 2009 estimates reflected the impact of the hurricanes (6).Geographic Codes in the Bridged-Race Population FilesSome of the population estimates series have slightly different sets of counties/county equivalents due to changes in county geography (13). For example, the Vintage 2009 files have population estimates for three new county equivalents (Wrangell Borough, Petersburg Census Area, and Prince of Wales-Hyder Census Area) and do not have estimates for two former county equivalents (Wrangell-Petersburg Census Area and Prince of Wales-Outer Ketchikan Census Area).Vintage 2008 has estimates for two new Alaska entities and does not have estimates for one former entity. Vintage 2002, Vintage 2005, Vintage 2006, and Vintage 2007 have estimates for the same 3,141 counties and county equivalents; Vintage 2003 and Vintage 2004 have estimates for the same 3,140 counties and county equivalents. The intercensal files and the April 1, 2000 files have estimates for the same set of entities (note that this set differs slightly from all of the sets associated with the postcensal estimates series). The tables below summarize differences in county geography across the various estimates series. New counties and county equivalents not on all of the bridged-race population files: 1990-2009 Series Number of counties County or County Equivalent Broomfield, CO (08014) Hoonah-Angoon Census Area, AK (02105) Skagway Municipality, AK (02230) Petersburg Census Area, AK (02195) Prince of Wales-Hyder Census Area, AK (02198) Wrangell City and Borough, AK (02275) Intercensal estimates 1990 -1999 3,141 --*-- --*-- --*-- --*-- --*-- --*-- Census counts 2000 April 1, 2000 3,141 --*-- --*-- --*-- --*-- --*-- --*-- Postcensal estimates Vintage 2001, 2000-2001None, only national estimates. Vintage 2002, 2000-20023,141 X --*-- --*-- --*-- --*-- --*-- Vintage 2003, 2000-20033,140 --*-- --*-- --*-- --*-- --*-- --*-- Vintage 2004, 2000-20043,140 --*-- --*-- --*-- --*-- --*-- --*-- Vintage 2005, 2000-20053,141 X --*-- --*-- --*-- --*-- --*-- Vintage 2006, 2000-20063,141 X --*-- --*-- --*-- --*-- --*-- Vintage 2007, 2000-20073,141 X --*-- --*-- --*-- --*-- --*-- Vintage 2008, 2000-20083,142 X X X --*-- --*-- --*-- Vintage 2009, 2000-20093,143 X X X X X X --*-- County or county equivalent is not on the file. X County or county equivalent is on the file. Specific details for new counties:Broomfield County, Colorado (FIPS code 08014) was created effective November 15, 2001 from parts of four Colorado counties: Adams, Boulder, Jefferson, and Weld. There are estimates for this county on some, but not all, of the bridged-race files. Note that data for Broomfield County do not appear on NCHS birth or mortality files until data year 2003. 041b061a72