The Sumerians: Their History, Culture, And Char... _VERIFIED_
Sumerian was well established as the written language by the late 4th century BCE and Sumerian culture, religion, architecture, and other significant aspects of civilization were as well. The literature of the Sumerians would influence later writers, notably the scribes who wrote the Bible, as their tales of The Myth of Adapa, The Eridu Genesis, and The Atrahasis would inform the later biblical accounts of the Garden of Eden, Fall of Man, and the Great Flood. Enheduanna's works would become the models for later liturgy, Mesopotamian animal fables would be popularized by Aesop, and The Epic of Gilgamesh would inspire works such as the Iliad and Odyssey.
The Sumerians: Their History, Culture, and Char...
Students were first shown how to simply make the vertical, horizontal, and oblique wedge marks clearly, and they practiced this exercise until they had mastered how to do it properly to the correct depth and dimension. Once the skill of manipulating both clay tablet and stylus was mastered, students moved on to learn characters that conveyed meaning and then produce sentences. While students were mastering the craft of writing, they were also instructed in mathematics, accounting, history, religion, and the values of their culture. Scholar Samuel Noah Kramer comments:
The Sumerians had an ongoing linguistic and cultural exchange with the Semitic Akkadian peoples in northern Mesopotamia for generations prior to the usurpation of their territories by Sargon of Akkad in 2340 BC. Sumerian mythology and religious practices were rapidly integrated into Akkadian culture, presumably blending with the original Akkadian belief systems that have been mostly lost to history. Sumerian deities developed Akkadian counterparts. Some remained virtually the same until later Babylonian and Assyrian rule. The Sumerian god An, for example, developed the Akkadian counterpart Anu; the Sumerian god Enki became Ea. The gods Ninurta and Enlil kept their original Sumerian names.
Sumer (also known as Sumeria) was responsible for the earliest art of Antiquity. The Sumerians were the first civilizing people to settle in the lands of southern Mesopotamia, draining the marshes for agriculture, starting trade, and establishing new forms of ancient pottery (first mass-produced bowls made at Uruk, about 4000 BCE), along with crafts like weaving, leatherwork and metalwork. These late forms of Neolithic art benefited significantly from the surge in population that resulted from the stable food supply and settled nature of Sumerian life. Sumerian civilization outshone all others within the region at the time - including Egyptian culture - due to their advanced laws, inventions and art. Only ancient Anatolian sites, such as Gobekli Tepe (c.9500 BCE) dating to the era of Mesolithic art, might be said to have yielded earlier signs of significant civilization. Sumerian culture flourished during the 4th and 3rd millennia BCE, before being overrun by the Semitic-speaking kings of the Akkadian Empire around 2270 BCE.
The single, decisive factor that made it possible for humankind to settle in permanent communities was agriculture. A turning point in human history, the invention of farming and the tremendous changes it brought about have been called the agricultural revolution. After farming was developed in the Middle East about 6500 bc, people living in tribes or family units did not have to be on the move continually searching for food or herding their animals. Once people could control the production of food and be assured of a reliable annual supply of it, their lives changed completely.
After the Battle of Kadesh, today considered a draw, both the Egyptian and Hittitian sides decided to end the hostilities between the two nations. The two kings, Ramses II and Hattusili III, came to realise that neither could substantially gain advantage of the other and the best course was the path of peace. The Hittites and Egyptians then entered into a new relationship in which they shared their knowledge and experiences. The Hittites taught the Egyptians how to make superior weapons and tools while the Egyptians, masters of agriculture, shared their own knowledge with the Hittites. The two nations continued a mutually beneficial relationship until the fall of the Hittite Empire c.1,200 BC
Modern-day archaeological discoveries in the Near East continue to illuminate our understanding of the ancient world, including the many contributions made by the people of Mesopotamia to literature, art, government, and urban life. The Handbook to Life in Ancient Mesopotamia describes the culture, history, and people of this land, as well as their struggle for survival and happiness, from about 3500 to 500 BCE. 041b061a72